Open Credo

Showing all posts by Dominic Fox

Some Uses For Type Aliases in Kotlin 1.1

February 28, 2017 | Software Consultancy

Some Uses For Type Aliases in Kotlin 1.1

As Kotlin’s 1.1 release draws closer, I’ve been looking at some of the new language features it supports. Type aliases may seem like a relatively minor feature next to coroutines, but as I will show in this blog post, they can open up a new programming idiom, particularly when combined with extension functions.

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Event Replaying with Hazelcast Jet

February 13, 2017 | Data Engineering

Event Replaying with Hazelcast Jet

One of the stated intentions behind the design of Java 8’s Streams API was to take better advantage of the multi-core processing power of modern computers. Operations that could be performed on a single, linear stream of values could also be run in parallel by splitting that stream into multiple sub-streams, and combining the results from processing each sub-stream as they became available.

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Reactive event processing with Reactor Core: a first look

January 26, 2017 | Data Engineering

Reactive event processing with Reactor Core: a first look

Suppose you are given the task of writing code that fulfils the following contract:

  • You will be given a promise that, at some point in the future, some data – a series of values – will become available.
  • In return, you will supply a promise that, at some point in the future, some data representing the results of processing that data will become available.
  • There may be more values to process than you can fit in memory, or even an infinite series of values.
  • You are allowed to specify what will be done with each individual value, as and when it becomes available; this includes discarding some values.
  • Whenever you want to use some external service to do something with a value, that service can only return you a promise that, at some point in the future, some data representing the result of processing that value will become available.

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The Three ‘R’s of Distributed Event Processing

January 25, 2017 | Cassandra

The Three ‘R’s of Distributed Event Processing

One of the simplest and best-understood models of computation is the Finite State Machine (FSM). An FSM has fixed range of states it can be in, and is always in one of these states. When an input arrives, this triggers a transition in the FSM from its current state to the next state. There may be several possible transitions to several different states, and which transition is chosen depends on the input.

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How to TDD FizzBuzz with JUnit Theories

January 13, 2017 | Software Consultancy

How to TDD FizzBuzz with JUnit Theories

The notorious FizzBuzz interview test was originally proposed as a way of weeding out candidates for programming jobs who – to put it bluntly – couldn’t program. The task is as follows:

Write a program that prints the numbers from 1 to 100. But for multiples of three print “Fizz” instead of the number and for the multiples of five print “Buzz”. For numbers which are multiples of both three and five print “FizzBuzz”.

It turns out that this problem has just enough subtlety about it to cause headaches to anyone who knows the basics but hasn’t learned how to think in nested structures.

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From Java to Go, and Back Again

October 13, 2016 | Data Analysis

From Java to Go, and Back Again

In Lisp, you don’t just write your program down toward the language, you also build the language up toward your program. As you’re writing a program you may think “I wish Lisp had such-and-such an operator.” So you go and write it. Afterward you realize that using the new operator would simplify the design of another part of the program, and so on. Language and program evolve together…In the end your program will look as if the language had been designed for it. And when language and program fit one another well, you end up with code which is clear, small, and efficient – Paul Graham, Programming Bottom-Up

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How Not To Use Cassandra Like An RDBMS (and what will happen if you do)

September 15, 2016 | Cassandra

How Not To Use Cassandra Like An RDBMS (and what will happen if you do)

Cassandra isn’t a relational database management system, but it has some features that make it look a bit like one. Chief among these is CQL, a query language with an SQL-like syntax. CQL isn’t a bad thing in itself – in fact it’s very convenient – but it can be misleading since it gives developers the illusion that they are working with a familiar data model, when things are really very different under the hood.

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The Destructor Pattern

June 3, 2016 | Software Consultancy

The Destructor Pattern

Complexity warning

In this post, I’m going to take something extremely simple, unfold it into something disconcertingly complex, and then fold it back into something relatively simple again. The exercise isn’t entirely empty: in the process, we’ll derive a more powerful (because more generic) version of the extremely simple thing we started with. I’m describing the overall shape of the journey now, because programmers who don’t love complexity for its own sake often find the initial “unfolding” stage objectionable, and then have trouble regarding the eventual increase in fanciness as worth the struggle.

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Complex Kotlin

May 25, 2016 | Software Consultancy

Complex Kotlin

In this post I’m going to demonstrate the implementation of Complex, a Kotlin class handling complex numbers, which uses operator overloading to provide the usual arithmetic operations for those numbers. In the process, I’ll also demonstrate a Kotlin pattern which I call “complicit conversion”, and show how to implement complicit conversion between two types: Double and Complex.

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The Concursus Programming Model: Kotlin

April 29, 2016 | Software Consultancy

The Concursus Programming Model: Kotlin

In this post, I’ll demonstrate an alternative API which uses some of the advanced language features of the new Kotlin language from Jetbrains. As Kotlin is a JVM-based language, it interoperates seamlessly with Concursus’s Java 8 classes; however, it also offers powerful ways to extend their functionality.

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The Concursus Programming Model: Under the Hood

April 29, 2016 | Software Consultancy

The Concursus Programming Model: Under the Hood

In the previous two posts (part 1, and part 2), we looked at how Concursus uses method mapping to generate events from method calls on proxies, and to dispatch events to matching methods on event handlers and state class instances. This approach provides a concise, convenient client API to the Concursus event system; however the core of the system defines events and event-handling mechanisms without reference to any of the reflection-based machinery used to implement this API. It is perfectly possible (if comparatively cumbersome) to use a Concursus event store to read and write events without using reflection. In this post I’ll show how this is done, continuing with the “lightbulb” example introduced previously.

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The Concursus Programming Model: State

April 28, 2016 | Software Consultancy

The Concursus Programming Model: State

In a conventional RDBMS-with-ORM system, we are used to thinking of domain objects as mapped to rows in database tables, and of the database as a repository where the current state of every object exists simultaneously, so that what we get when we query for an object is the state that object was in at the time the query was issued. To perform an update, we can start a transaction, retrieve the current state of the object, modify it, save it back again and commit. Transactions move the global state of the system from one consistent state to another, so that the database transaction log represents a single, linear history of updates. We are therefore able to have a very stable, intuitive sense of what it means to talk about the “current state” of any domain object.

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The Concursus Programming Model: Events

April 27, 2016 | Software Consultancy

The Concursus Programming Model: Events

Concursus is an open source Java 8 framework for building distributed systems using CQRS and event sourcing patterns. One of its major differences from other such frameworks (such as Jdon, Axon and ES4J) is that it eschews a programming model where each event type is represented by a separate Java class, instead mapping event types to methods on interfaces.

 

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Lambda memoization in Java 8

August 19, 2015 | Software Consultancy

Lambda memoization in Java 8

Memoization is a technique whereby we trade memory for execution speed. Suppose you have a function which

  • Is costly to execute.
  • Always returns the same output for the same input.
  • May be called many times with the same input.

In this scenario, it may make sense to “remember” the output returned for each distinct input in a hash map, and replace function execution with a lookup in the hash map.

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New Tricks With Dynamic Proxies In Java 8 (part 3)

August 18, 2015 | Software Consultancy

New Tricks With Dynamic Proxies In Java 8 (part 3)

In this post, the last in the New Tricks With Dynamic Proxies series (see part 1 and part 2), I’m going to look at using dynamic proxies to create bean-like value objects to represent records. The basic idea here is to have some untyped storage for a collection of property values, such as an array of Objects, and a typed wrapper around that storage which provides a convenient and type-safe access mechanism. A dynamic proxy is used to convert calls on getter and setter methods in the wrapper interface into calls which read and write values in the store.

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New Tricks with Dynamic Proxies in Java 8 (part 2)

July 14, 2015 | Software Consultancy

New Tricks with Dynamic Proxies in Java 8 (part 2)

Building simple proxies

In the previous post I introduced Java dynamic proxies, and sketched out a way they could be used in testing to simplify the generation of custom Hamcrest matchers. In this post, I’m going to dive into some techniques for implementing proxies in Java 8. We’ll start with a simple case, and build up towards something more complex and full-featured.

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New Tricks with Dynamic Proxies in Java 8 (part 1)

July 13, 2015 | Software Consultancy

New Tricks with Dynamic Proxies in Java 8 (part 1)

Why Use Dynamic Proxies?

Dynamic proxies have been a feature of Java since version 1.3. They were widely used in J2EE for remoting. Given an abstract interface, and a concrete implementation of that interface, a call to some method on the interface can be made “remote” (i.e. cross-JVM) by creating two additional classes. The first, a “marshalling” implementation of the interface, captures the details of the call in the source JVM and serializes them over the network. The second, an “unmarshalling” endpoint, receives the serialized call details and dispatches the call to an instance of the concrete class on the target JVM.

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